Adenomyosis is when endometrial tissue (the type of tissue that normally lines the uterus) also grows in the muscle layer of the uterus, where it thickens, breaks down and bleeds during each menstrual cycle. Adenomyosis does not always cause symptoms, but some women experience painful periods (dysmenorrhoea), heavy periods (menorrhagia), pelvic pain and pain during sexual intercourse, amongst other symptoms.
Adenomyosis can be diagnosed based on the presence of typical symptoms, physical examination and investigations. It may show up on an ultrasound scan of the pelvis. There are several treatment options, which depend on the nature and severity of symptoms, a woman’s future plans for pregnancy, or how near she is to menopause.